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The election of Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan for a third term as the President of Turkey comes at a time when the world order and the Islamic world have been shaken by conditions, especially competitive nationalism. Key actors in the need for change. The Turkish election was not really one of the prominent drivers influencing the emerging world order, but it was an important event for India and the rest of the world, especially the Islamic world.

In his tumultuous second term, Erdogan has begun to promote an extreme form of Islam that borders on revivalism, as opposed to the Arab version popular in the region. Erdogan has shifted the balance between Islamic conservatism and radical secularism. As he began to establish himself as the leader of the Islamic world to revive memories of the Ottoman Empire, he began to push for the integration of Arab and other core Islamic principles into governance. But Saudi Arabia is in no mood to relinquish its hegemony over the Islamic world.

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Before that, since 2003, when he first became prime minister, Erdogan gradually began to build a national narrative, but in practice it meant running away from Western influence and lifestyle. But the process was slow and not done clearly, so as not to spoil the ‘European’ and secular aspect of the country. A weak and disorganized opposition chanted the principles of modern Turkey’s founder, Kemal Pasha, but failed to align with Erdogan’s political strategy or governance. In the year The 2016 coup attempt against him was a shock and a big and costly lesson for Erdogan. But what doesn’t kill makes a man stronger, as seen in Erdogan’s case.

Turkey, incidentally, was one of the few countries that opposed India’s entry into the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG). Under Erdogan, he has taken a strong anti-India stance on Kashmir, especially after the abrogation of Article 370 in 2019. Although Turkey does not benefit much from an alliance with Islamabad, it will help Erdogan to block one more Islamic state for the project. Although Ankara is skeptical that Pakistan will cede too much economic and strategic space to China. Turkey needs a base in Pakistan so that it can monitor Afghanistan, Iran and Central Asia. India, on the other hand, has raised concerns over Turkey’s human rights abuses in Greece, Cyprus and Armenia, countries where Turkey has territorial disputes. In addition to canceling defense exports to Ankara, India also canceled a $2 billion naval deal with a Turkish defense company.

As a result of these diplomatic protests, Erdogan appears to be softening his stance on Kashmir, expressing his hope that India and Pakistan will resolve the issue bilaterally. Erdogan seems to realize that Ankara needs to make a course correction in its relations with India. Turkey, which is in deep economic crisis, wants to become a full member of the SCO, which is currently chaired by India.

On the sidelines of the SOO summit in Uzbekistan, Prime Minister Narendra Modi met Erdogan at Turkey’s request, paving the way for greater interaction between the two foreign ministries. During the devastating earthquake in Turkey, the generous aid sent by New Delhi under ‘Operation Dost’ helped thaw the relationship further.

For Indian businesses, Turkey provides a convenient gateway to Europe and Africa. The EU’s customs union, of which Turkey is a member, makes it easier for EU companies to trade with companies outside the EU, harmonizing customs duties on goods from such countries. Considering the improvement in trade, it would be prudent for the two countries to initiate negotiations to institutionalize bilateral trade through a trade agreement.

In both capitals, there is an understanding that the two countries are expected to cooperate at the international level in view of their respective strategic positions, cultural proximity and historical background, although there are occasional frustrations.